GAPS Publications

Having trouble locating a publication? Contact us at epistemicgames at gmail dot com.

Quantitative Ethnography

David Williamson Shaffer

How can we make sense of make sense of the deluge of information in the digital age? The new science of Quantitative Ethnography dissolves the boundaries between quantitative and qualitative research to give researchers tools for studying the human side of big data: to understand not just what data says, but what it tells us about the people who created it. Thoughtful, literate, and humane, Quantitative Ethnography integrates data-mining, discourse analysis, psychology, statistics, and ethnography into a brand-new science for understanding what people do and why they do it. Packed with anecdotes, stories, and clear explanations of complex ideas, Quantitative Ethnography is an engaging introduction to research methods for students, an introduction to data science for qualitative researchers, and an introduction to the humanities for statisticians-but also a compelling philosophical and intellectual journey for anyone who wants to understand learning, culture and behavior in the age of big data.

 

How Computer Games Help Children Learn

David Williamson Shaffer

How can we make sure that our kids are learning to be creative thinkers in a world of global competition–and what does that mean for the future of education in the digital age? David Williamson Shaffer offers a fresh and powerful perspective on computer games and learning. How Computer Games Help Children Learn shows how video and computer games can help teach kids to build successful futures–but only if we think in new ways about education itself. Shaffer shows how computer and video games can help students learn to think like engineers, urban planners, journalists, lawyers, and other innovative professionals, giving them the tools they need to survive in a changing world. Based on more than a decade of research in technology, game science, and education, How Computer Games Help Children Learn revolutionizes the ongoing debate about the pros and cons of digital learning.

 

2017

Sullivan, S.A., Warner-Hillard, C., Eagan, B., Thompson, R., Ruis, A.R., Legare, A., Pugh, C.M., Shaffer, D.W., & Jung, H.S. (2017). Identifying targets to improve trauma team communication using epistemic network analysis. Paper accepted to the 2017 Annual ACS Surgical Simulation Meeting, Chicago, IL.

Gasevic, D., Joksimovic, S., Eagan, B. & Shaffer, D.W. (2017). SENS: Measuring Social-Epistemological Network Signature of Collaborative Problem Solving. Paper submitted to the 7th International Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference, Vancouver, B.C.

Arastoopour Irgens, G. (2017). Connected design rationale: Modeling and measuring engineering design learning. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Saucerman, J., Ruis, A.R., & Shaffer, D.W. (2017). Automating the detection of reflection-on-action. Journal of Learning Analytics, 4(2), 212–239.

Shaffer, D.W. & Ruis, A.R. (2017). Epistemic network analysis: A worked example of theory-based learning analytics. In C. Lang, G. Siemens, A. Wise, & D. Grasevic (eds.), Handbook of Learning Analytics (pp. 175–187). Society for Learning Analytics Research.

Ruis, A.R., & Shaffer, D.W. (2017). Annals and Analytics: The Practice of History in the Age of Big Data. Medical History, 61(2), 336–339.

Shaffer, D.W. (2017). Quantitative Ethnography. Madison, WI: Cathcart Press.

Eagan, B.R., Rogers, B., Serlin, R., Ruis. A.R., Arastoopour Irgens, G., & Shaffer, D.W. (2017). Can we rely on IRR? Testing the assumptions of inter-rater reliability. Paper presented at the International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning. Philadelphia, PA.

2016

Foster, A. & Shah, M. (2016) Examining game design features for identity exploration and change. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 35(4), 369–384.

Shaffer, D.W., Collier, W., & Ruis, A.R. (2016). A tutorial on epistemic network analysis: Analyzing the structure of connections in cognitive, social, and interaction data. Journal of Learning Analytics, 3(3), 9–45.

Ruis, A.R., Shaffer, D.W., Shirley, D.K., & Safdar, N. (2016). Teaching health care workers to adopt a systems perspective for improved control and prevention of healthcare-associated infections. American Journal of Infection Control, 44(11), 1360–1364.

Markovetz, M.R., Clark, R.M., Swiecki, Z., Arastoopour, G., Chesler, N.C., Shaffer, D.W., & Bodnar, C.A. (in press).  Influence of end customer exposure on product design within an epistemic game environment.  Advances in Engineering Education.

Foster, A., Shah, M., & Barany, A. (2016). Game-based learning for identity change. Paper presented at the 12th Games+Learning+Society Conference, Madison, WI.

Andrist, S. (2016). Gaze mechanisms for situated interaction with embodied agents. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Arastoopour, G., Shaffer, D.W., Swiecki, Z., Ruis, A.R., & Chesler, N.C. (2016). Teaching and assessing engineering design thinking with virtual internships and epistemic network analysis. International Journal of Engineering Education, 32(3B), 1492–1501.

Quardokus Fisher, K. Hirshfield, L., Siebert-Evenstone, A., Arastoopour, G., & Koretsky, M. (2016). Network analysis of interactions between students and an instructor during design meetings. Paper presented at the American Society for Engineering Education, New Orleans, LA.

Rus, V., Gautam, D., Swiecki, Z., Shaffer, D.W., & Graesser, A. (2016). Assessing student-generated design justifications in virtual engineering internships. Paper presented at the 9th International Conference on Educational Data Mining, Raleigh, NC.

Siebert-Evenstone, A. L., Arastoopour, G., Collier, W., Swiecki, Z., Ruis, A. R., & Shaffer, D.W. (2016). In search of conversational grain size: Modeling semantic structure using moving stanza windows. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference of the Learning Sciences, Singapore.

Collier, W., Ruis, A.R., & Shaffer, D.W. (2016). Local versus global connection making in discourse. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference of the Learning Sciences, Singapore.

Markovetz, M.R., Clark, R.M., Swiecki, Z., Arastoopour, G., Chesler, N.C., Shaffer, D.W., & Bodnar, C.A. (2016). Innovative design within the context of virtual internships: How can it be defined and how is it related to the student design process? ASEE 2016 Annual Conference and Exposition, New Orleans, LA.

2015

Wise, A.F., & Shaffer, D.W. (2015). Why theory matters more than ever in the age of big data. Journal of Learning Analytics, 2(2), 5–13.

Hatfield, D. (2015). The right kind of telling an analysis of feedback and learning in a journalism epistemic game. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 7(2), 1–23.pdficon_small

Andrist, S., Collier, W., Gleicher, M., Mutlu, B., & Shaffer, D.W. (2015). Look together: Analyzing gaze coordination with epistemic network analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(1016).

Bagley, E., & Shaffer, D.W. (2015). Learning in an urban and regional planning practicum: The view from educational ethnography. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 26(4), 369-393.

Chesler, N.C., Ruis, A.R., Collier, W., Swiecki, Z., Arastoopour, G., & Shaffer, D.W. (2015). A novel paradigm for engineering education: Virtual internships with individualized mentoring and assessment of engineering thinking. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 137(2).

Bagley, E., & Shaffer, D.W. (2015). Stop talking and type: Comparing virtual and face-to-face mentoring in an epistemic game. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 31(6), 606–622.

Shaffer, D.W., Nash, P., & Ruis, A.R. (2015). Technology and the new professionalization of teaching. Teachers College Record 117(12), 1–30.

Graesser, A.C., Foltz, P.W., Rosen, Y., Shaffer, D.W., Forsyth, C., & Germany, M. (2015). Challenges of assessing collaborative problem solving. In E. Care, P. Griffin, and M. Wilson (eds.), Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills. Springer.

Shaffer, D.W., Ruis, A.R., & Graesser, A. C. (2015). Authoring Networked Learner Models in Complex Domains. In R. Sottilare, X. Hu, & A.C. Graesser (eds.), Design Recommendations for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Authoring Tools, (pp. 179–191). Orlando: U.S. Army Research Laboratory. pdficon_small

Shaffer, D.W., Borden, F., Srinivasan, A., Saucerman, J., Arastoopour, G., Collier, W., Ruis, A.R., & Frank, K.A. (2015). The nCoder: A technique for improving the utility of inter-rater reliability statistics. Epistemic Games Group Working Paper 2015-01. University of Wisconsin–Madison.

Arastoopour, G., & Shaffer, D.W. (2015). Epistemography and Professional CSCL Environment Design. Paper presented at the International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning. Gothenberg, Sweden.

Arastoopour, G., Collier, W., Chesler, N.C., Linderoth, J., & Shaffer, D.W. (2015). Measuring the Complexity of Simulated Engineering Design Problems. Paper presented at the American Society for Engineering Education. Seattle, WA.

Arastoopour, G., Swiecki, Z., Chesler, N.C., & Shaffer, D.W. (2015). Epistemic Network Analysis as a Tool for Engineering Design Assessment. Paper presented at the American Society for Engineering Education. Seattle, WA.

Arastoopour, G., Shaffer, D.W., Swiecki, Z., Ruis, A.R., & Chesler, N.C. (2015). Teaching and Assessing Engineering Design Thinking with Virtual Internships and Epistemic Network Analysis. Paper presented at the Harvey Mudd Design Workshop. Claremont, CA.

Saucerman, J., Tscholl, M., & Shaffer, D.W. (2015). Automating Detection of Good Reflective Responses in Discourse. Poster presented at the International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning. Gothenberg, Sweden.

2014

Arastoopour, G., Chesler, N.C., & Shaffer, D.W. (2014). Epistemic persistence: A simulation-based approach to increasing participation of women in engineering. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 20(3): 211-234.

Graesser, A.C., Keshtkar, F., & Li, H. (2014). The role of natural language and discourse processing in advanced tutoring systems. In T. Holtgraves (Ed.), Oxford handbooks online: Language and social psychology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Keshtkar, F., Burkett, C., Li, H., & Graesser, A.C. (2014). Using data mining techniques to detect the personality of players in an educational game. In A. Pena-Ayala (Ed.), Educational data mining: Applications and trends (pp. 125-150). New York: Springer.

Knight, S., Arastoopour, G., Shaffer, D.W., Shum, S.B., & Littleton, K. (2014). Epistemic networks for epistemic commitments. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Boulder, CO.

Li, H., Duan, Y., Clewley, D., Morgan, B., Graesser, A.C., Shaffer, D.W., & Saucerman, J. (2014). Question asking during collaborative problem solving in an online game environment. Paper presented at the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Honolulu, HI.

Dowell, N.M., Cade, W.L., Tausczik, Y.R., Pennebaker, J.W., & Graesser, A.C. (2014). What works: Creating adaptive and intelligent systems for collaborative learning support. Paper presented at the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Honolulu, HI.

Li, H., Samei, B., Olney, A.M., Graesser, A.C., & Shaffer, D.W. (2014). Question classification in an epistemic game. Paper presented at the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Honolulu, HI.

Samei, B., Li, H., Keshtkar, F., Rus, V., & Graesser, A.C. (2014). Context-based speech act classification in intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Honolulu, HI.

2013

Chesler, N., Arastoopour, G., D’Angelo, C., Bagley, E., & Shaffer, D.W. (2013). Design of a professional practice simulator for educating and motivating first-year engineering students. Advances in Engineering Education 3(3): 1-29.

Nash, P., & Shaffer, D.W. (2013). Epistemic trajectories: Mentoring in a game design practicum. Instructional Science, 41(4): 745-771.

Graesser, A.C. (2013). Evolution of advanced learning technologies in the 21st century. Theory into Practice, 52: 93-101.

Knight, S., Arastoopour, G., Shaffer, D.W., Shum, S.B., & Littleton, K. (2013). Epistemic networks for epistemic commitments. Technical Report KMI-13-03. Knowledge Media Institute, Open University, Netherlands.

Arastoopour, G., Chesler, N., D’Angelo, C.M., Opgenorth, J., Reardan, C., Haggerty, N., Lepak, C., & Shaffer, D.W. (2013). Epistemic persistence: A simulation-based approach for increasing women in engineering. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. San Francisco, CA.

Arastoopour, G. & Shaffer, D.W. (2013). Measuring social identity development in epistemic games. Paper presented at the International Conference on Computer Supported Learning. Madison, WI.

Arastoopour, G., Chesler, N., & Shaffer, D. W. (2013). A simulation-based approach for increasing women in engineering. Paper presented at the International Conference on Computer Supported Learning. Madison, WI.

Morgan, B., Keshtkar, F., Graesser, A.C., & Shaffer, D.W. (2013). Automating the mentor in a serious game: A discourse analysis using finite state machines. Paper presented at the International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Las Vegas, NV.

Orill, C.H., Shaffer, D.W., & Burke, J. (2013). Exploring coherence in teacher knowledge using epistemic network analysis. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. San Francisco, CA.

2012

Shaffer, D.W. & Gee, J.P. (2012). The right kind of GATE: Computer games and the future of assessment. In M. Mayrath, D. Robinson, & J. Clarke-Midura (Eds.), Technology-based assessments for 21st century skills: Theoretical and practical implications from modern research. Information Age Publications.

Shaffer, D.W. (2012). Models of situated action: Computer games and the problem of transfer. In C. Steinkuehler, K. Squire, S. Barab (Eds.), Games learning, and society: Learning and meaning in the digital age, (pp. 403-433). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Bagley, E. (2012). Epistemic mentoring in virtual and face-to-face environments. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Nash, P., Bagley, E.A., & Shaffer, D.W. (2012). Playing for public interest: Epistemic games as civic engagement activities. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Vancouver, BC.

Nash, P. & Shaffer, D.W. (2012). Epistemic youth development: Educational games as youth development activities. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Vancouver, BC.

Bagley, E. & Shaffer, D.W. (2012). Epistemic mentoring in virtual and face-to-face environments. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Vancouver, BC.

Arastoopour, G., Chesler, N., D’Angelo, C., Shaffer, D.W., Opgenorth, J., Reardan, C., Haggerty, N., & Lepak, C. (2012). Nephrotex: Measuring first-year students’ ways of professional thinking in a virtual internship. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Engineering Education. San Antonio, TX.

Orrill, C.H. & Shaffer, D.W. (2012). Exploring connectedness: Applying ENA to teacher knowledge. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Sydney, Australia.

2011

Nash, P. & Shaffer, D.W. (2011). Mentor modeling: The internalization of modeled professional thinking in an epistemic game. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 27(2): 173–189.

Svarovsky, G.N. (2011). Exploring complex engineering learning over time with Epistemic Network Analysis. Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research, 1(2), 19-30.

Bagley, E. & Shaffer, D.W. (2011). Promoting civic thinking through epistemic game play. In R. Ferdig (Ed.), Discoveries in gaming and computer-mediated simulations: New interdisciplinary applications, (pp. 111-127). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Hatfield, D. (2011). The right kind of telling: An analysis of feedback and learning in a journalism epistemic game. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Shaffer, D.W., Chesler, N., Arastoopour, G., & D’Angelo, C. (2011). Nephrotex: Teaching first-year students how to think like engineers. Poster presented at the Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement PI Conference. Washington, D.C.

D’Angelo, C., Arastoopour, G., Chesler, N., & Shaffer, D.W. (2011). Collaborating in a virtual engineering internship. Paper presented at the Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Conference. Hong Kong, China.

Chesler, N., D’Angelo, C., Arastoopour, G., & Shaffer, D.W. (2011). Use of professional practice simulation in a first-year introduction to engineering course. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society for Engineering Education. Vancouver, BC.

D’Angelo, C., Shaffer, D.W., & Chesler, N. (2011). Undergraduate engineers engaging and reflecting in a professional practice simulation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society for Engineering Education. Vancouver, BC.

Moldovan, C., Rus, V., & Graesser, A.C. (2011). Automated speech act classification for online chat. Paper presented at the Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Conference. Cincinnati, OH.

D’Angelo, C., Arastoopour, G., Chesler, N., & Shaffer, D.W. (2011). Undergraduate engineers engaging and reflecting in a professional practice simulation. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Society for Engineering Education. Vancouver, BC.

2010

Rupp, A., Gushta, M., Mislevy, R., & Shaffer, D.W. (2010). Evidence-centered design of epistemic games: Measurement principles for complex learning environments. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 8(4): 4-47.

Gee, J.P. & Shaffer, D.W. (2010). Looking where the light is bad: Video games and the future of assessment. Phi Delta Kappa International EDge 6(1): 3-19.

Hatfield, D. & Shaffer, D.W. (2010). The epistemography of a journalism practicum: The complex mechanisms of developing journalistic expertise. WCER Working Paper 2010-10. Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Bagley, E. (2010). The epistemography of an urban and regional planning practicum: Appropriation in the face of resistance. WCER Working Paper 2010-8. Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Svarovsky, G. (2010). Unpacking an engineering practicum: Building engineers, one participant structure at a time. WCER Working Paper 2010-5. Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Shaffer, D.W. (2010). The bicycle helmets of “Amsterdam”: Computer games and the problem of transfer. Epistemic Games Group Working Paper 2010-01. Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Gee, J.P. & Shaffer, D.W. (2010). Looking where the light is bad: Video games and the future of assessment. Epistemic Games Group Working Paper 2010-02. Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Chesler, N., Bagley, E., Breckenfeld, E., West, D., & Shaffer, D.W. (2010). A virtual hemodialyzer design project for first-year engineers: An epistemic game approach. Paper presented at the American Society of Medical Engineers Bioengineering Conference. Naples, FL.

Chesler, N., Bagley, E., Breckenfeld, E., West, D., Stace-Naughton, A., & Shaffer, D.W. (2010). Professional practice simulation for undergraduate engineers: A tool for engaging, educating, and assessing. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Engineering Education. Louisville, KY.

Graesser, A., Cai, Z., Wood, J., Hatfield, D., Bagley, E., Nash P., & Shaffer, D.W. (2010). Comments of journalism mentors on news stories: Classification and epistemic status of mentor contributions. Paper presented at the Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference. Pittsburgh, PA.

Hatfield, D. & Shaffer, D.W. (2010). The epistemography of journalism 335: Complexity in developing journalistic expertise. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Chicago, IL.

Bagley, E., & Shaffer, D.W. (2010). The epistemography of urban and regional planning 912: Appropriation in the face of resistance. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Chicago, IL.

Nash, P. & Shaffer, D.W. (2010). Mentor modeling: The internalization of modeled professional thinking in an epistemic game. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Chicago, IL.

Chesler, N., Bagley, E., & Shaffer, D.W. (2010). Professional practice simulations for engaging, educating, and assessing undergraduate engineers. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Chicago, IL.

Shaffer, D.W. & Graesser, A.C. (2010). Using a quantitative model of participation in a community of practice to direct automated mentoring in an ill-formed domain. Paper presented at the Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference. Pittsburgh, PA.

2009

Shaffer, D.W., Hatfield, D., Svarovsky, G., Nash, P., Nulty, A., Bagley, E., Frank, K., Rupp, A., & Mislevy, R. (2009). Epistemic Network Analysis: A prototype for 21st century assessment of learning. International Journal of Learning and Media 1(2): 33-53.

Bagley, E. & Shaffer, D.W. (2009). When people get in the way: Promoting civic thinking through epistemic game play. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations 1(1): 36-52.

Shaffer, D.W. (2009). Wag the kennel: Games, frames, and the problem of assessment. In R. Fertig (Ed.), Handbook of research on effective electronic gaming in education. (vol. 2, pp. 577-592). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Shaffer, D.W. (2009). Computers and the end of progressive education. In D. Gibson (Ed.), Digital simulations for improving education: Learning through artificial teaching environments, (pp. 68-85). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Shaffer, D.W. (2009). Foreword. In R. Van Eck (Ed.), Gaming and cognition: Theories and practice from the learning sciences. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Svarovsky, G. (2009) Unpacking the digital zoo: An analysis of the learning processes within an engineering epistemic game. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Rupp, A., Choi, Y., Gushta, M., Mislevy, R., Thies, M.C., Bagley, E., Nash, P., Hatfield, D., Svarovsky, G., & Shaffer, D.W. (2009). Modeling learning progressions in epistemic games with epistemic network analysis: Principles for data analysis and generation. Paper presented at the Learning Progressions in Science Conference. Iowa City, IA.

2008

Shaffer, D.W. (2008). Education in the digital age. Digital Kompetanse, 1(3): 39-52.

Shaffer, D.W. (2008). Learning in the digital age. Wisconsin People and Ideas 54(2): 51-55.

Shaffer, D.W. (2008). Education in the digital age. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy 54(2):. 39-52.

Nash, P. & Shaffer, D.W. (2008). Player-mentor interactions in an epistemic game: A preliminary analysis. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Utrecht, Netherlands.

Nulty, A. & Shaffer, D.W. (2008). Digital Zoo: The effects of mentoring on young engineers. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Utrecht, Netherlands.

Bagley, E., & Shaffer, D.W. (2008). “They listen to stakeholders”: Promoting civic thinking through epistemic game play. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Utrecht, Netherlands.

Hatfield, D., & Shaffer, D.W. (2008). Reflection in professional play. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Utrecht, Netherlands.

Shaffer, D.W. (2008). University of play. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

2007

Shaffer, D.W. (2007). How Computer Games Help Children Learn. New York, NY: Palgrave.

Svarovsky, G. & Shaffer, D.W. (2007). SodaConstructing knowledge through exploratoids. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 44(1): 133-153.

Shaffer, D.W. (2007). Epistemic games as career preparatory experiences for students with disabilities. Journal of Special Education Technology 22(3): 57-69.

Shaffer, D.W. & Gee, J.P. (2007). Epistemic games as education for innovation. In J.D.M. Underwood and J. Dockrell (Eds.), Learning through digital technologies (pp. 71-82). Leicester, UK: British Journal of Educational Psychology.

Shaffer, D.W. (2007). In praise of epistemology. In B.E. Shelton and D.A. Wiley (Eds.), The design and use of simulation computer games in education (pp. 7-27). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishers.

Shaffer, D.W. (2007). Learning in design. In R.A. Lesh, J.J. Kaput, & E. Hamilton (Eds.), Foundations for the future in mathematics education (pp. 99-126). Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum.

Shaffer, D.W. (2007). The educational value of computer games. Principal Magazine 86(4): 66-67.

Shaffer, D.W. (2007). Creative play, creative thought: Computer games can help kids learn. Wisconsin State Journal.

Shaffer, D.W. (2007). Juegos Epistemicos para mejorar las habilidades y valores profesionales. Revista Enlaces, 4.

Shaffer, D.W. (2007). Epistemic games to improve professional skills and values. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

2006

Shaffer, D.W. & Clinton, K. (2006). Tool for thoughts: Reexamining thinking in the digital age. Mind, Culture, and Activity 13(4): 283-300.

Shaffer, D.W. (2006). Epistemic frames for epistemic games. Computers and Education 46(3): 223-234.

Moreno, M.A. & Shaffer, D.W. (2006). Intakes conference: Understanding the impact of resident autonomy on a morning report conference. Teaching and Learning in Medicine 18(4): 297-303.

Gordon, J.A., Shaffer, D.W., Raemer, D.B., Pawlowski, J., Hurford, W.E., & Cooper, J.B. (2006). A randomized controlled trial of simulation-based teaching versus traditional instruction in medicine: A pilot study among clinical medical students. Advances in Health Science Education 11: 33-39.

Shaffer, D.W. & Squire, K.D. (2006). The pasteurization of education. In S.Y. Tettegah & R.C. Hunter (Eds.), Technology and education: Issues in administration, policy, and application in K12 schools (vol. 8, pp. 43-55). London: Elsevier.

Shaffer, D.W. (2006). Beyond “He said, she said”: Games for learning move beyond the traditional dichotomy of weak v strong instructional guidance. Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Newsletter for Educators and Educational Researchers 3.

Shaffer, D.W. & Squire, K.D. (2006). The pasteurization of education. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Bloomington, IN.

Svarovsky, G.N. & Shaffer, D.W. (2006). Design meetings and design notebooks as tools for reflection in the engineering design course. Paper presented at the ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference. San Diego, CA.

Svarovsky, G.N. & Shaffer, D.W. (2006). Sodaconstructing an understanding of physics: Technology-based engineering activities for middle school students. Paper presented at the ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference. San Diego, CA.

Hatfield, D. & Shaffer, D.W. (2006). Press play: designing an epistemic game engine for journalism. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Bloomington, IN.

Svarovsky. G.N. & Shaffer, D.W. (2006). Berta’s Tower: Developing conceptual physics understanding one exploratoid at a time. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Bloomington, IN.

Svarovsky, G.N. & Shaffer, D.W. (2006). Engineering girls gone wild: Developing an engineering identity in Digital Zoo. Poster presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Bloomington, IN.

2005

Beckett, K. & Shaffer, D.W. (2005). Augmented by reality: The pedagogical praxis of urban planning as a pathway to ecological thinking. Journal of Educational Computing Research 33(1): 31-52.

Shaffer, D.W., Squire, K.D., Halverson, R., & Gee, J.P. (2005). Video games and the future of learning. Phi Delta Kappan 87(2): 104-111.

Shaffer, D. W. (2005). Juegos epistemicos. Journal of Online Education 1(6).

Shaffer, D. W. (2005). Epistemic games. Innovate, 1(6). Reprinted in Computers and Education 46: 223-234.

Shaffer, D.W., & Clinton, K.A. (2005). Toolforthoughts: Reexamining thinking in the digital age. WCER Working Paper 2005-6. Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Shaffer, D.W. (2005). Multisubculturalism: Computers and the end of progressive education. WCER Working Paper 2005-5. Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Shaffer, D.W. (2005). Epistemography and the participant structures of a professional practicum: A story behind the story of Journalism 828. WCER Working Paper 2005-8. Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Shaffer, D.W. (2005). Studio mathematics: The epistemology and practice of design pedagogy as a model for mathematics learning. WCER Working Paper 2005-3. Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Shaffer, D.W., & Gee, J.P. (2005). Before every child is left behind: How epistemic games can solve the coming crisis in education. WCER Working Paper 2005-7. Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Shaffer, D.W., & Gee, J.P. (2005). Video games and the future of learning. WCER Working Paper 2005-7. Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Shaffer, D.W. & Clinton, K.A. (2005). Why all CSL is CL: Distributed mind and the future of computer supported collaborative learning. Paper presented at the International Conference on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. Taipei, Taiwan.

2004

Shaffer, D.W. (2004). When computer-supported collaboration means computer-supported competition: Professional mediation as a model for collaborative learning. Journal of Interactive Learning Research 15(2): 101-115.

Shaffer, D. W. (2004). Pedagogical praxis: The professions as models for postindustrial education. Teachers College Record 106(7): 1401-1421.

Shaffer, D.W., Gordon, J., & Bennett, N.L. (2004). Learning, testing, and the evaluation of learning environments in medicine: Global performance assessment in medical education. Interactive Learning Environments, 12(3): 167-179.

Shaffer, D.W. & Serlin, R. (2004). What good are statistics that don’t generalize? Educational Researcher 33(9): 14-25.

Shaffer, D.W. (2004). Pedagogical praxis: Using technology to build professional communities of practice. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) SigGROUP Bulletin 24(3): 39-43.

Rohde, M., & Shaffer, D.W. (2004). Us, ourselves, and we: Thoughts about social (self-) categorization. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) SigGROUP Bulletin 24(3): 9-24.

Shaffer, D.W., & Serlin, R. (2004). Intra sample statistical analysis. WCER Working Paper 2004-2. Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Beckett, K. & Shaffer, D.W. (2004). We built this city: Developing students’ understanding of ecology through the professional practice of urban planning. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Santa Monica, CA.

Svarovsky, G.N., & Shaffer, D.W. (2004). Berta’s Tower: Understanding physics through virtual engineering. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Santa Monica, CA.

Shaffer, D.W. (2004). Epistemic frames and islands of expertise: Learning from infusion experiences. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences. Santa Monica, CA.

2003

Gordon, J.A., Tancredi, D.N., Binder, W.D., Wilkerson, W., & Shaffer, D.W. (2003). Assessment of a clinical performance evaluation tool for use in a simulator-based testing environment: a pilot study. Academic Medicine 78(10): S45-47.

Gordon, J.A., Shaffer, D.W., Cooper, J.B., Raemer, D.B., Graydon-Baker, E., Pawlowski, J., et al. (2003). Randomized controlled trial of simulation-based teaching versus traditional instruction in critical care and emergency medicine. Anesthesia and Analgesia 97(2): S13.

Shaffer, D.W. (2003). Pedagogical praxis: The professions as models for learning in the age of the smart machine. WCER Working Paper 2003-6). Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Shaffer, D.W. (2003). Portrait of the Oxford design studio: An ethnography of design pedagogy. WCER Working Paper 2003-11. Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Svarovsky, G., & Shaffer, D.W. (2003). Berta’s Tower: An expert-novice study investigating ideas in the domain of physics and the practice of engineering. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago, IL.

Shaffer, D.W. (2003). When Dewey met Schon: Computer-supported learning through professional practices. In C. McNaught & D. Lassner (Eds.), Proceedings of the World Conference on Educational Media, Hypermedia, and Telecommunications 2003 (pp. 2197-2205). Honolulu, HI: Association for the Advancement of Computers in Education.

Hatfield, D. (2003). Fletch: Web-based journalism as a bridge to technological literacy. Paper presented at the IEEE Symposium on Human Centric Computing Languages and Environments. Auckland, New Zealand.

2002

Shaffer, D.W. (2002). The Design Studio: A promising model for learning to collaborate: Thoughts in response to Hall, Star, and Nemirovsky. In T. Koschmann, R. Hall, & N. Miyake (Eds.), Computer support for collaborative learning (vol. 2, pp. 223-228). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Shaffer, D. W. (2002). Design, collaboration, and computation: The design studio as a model for computer-supported collaboration in mathematics. In T. Koschmann, R. Hall, & N. Miyake (Eds.), Computer support for collaborative learning (vol. 2, pp. 250-255). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kaput, J.J., & Shaffer, D.W. (2002). On the development of human representational competence from an evolutionary point of view: From episodic to virtual culture. In K. Gravemeijer, R. Lehrer, B. van Oers & L. Verschaffel (Eds.), Symbolizing, modeling and tool use in mathematics education (pp. 269-286). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwar Academic Press.

Shaffer, D.W., Kigin, C., Kaput, J., & Gazelle, G. (2002). What is digital medicine? In R. Bushko (Ed.), Future of health technology. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press.

2001

Gordon, J.A., Wilkerson, W., Shaffer, D.W., & Armstrong, E.G. (2001). “Practicing” medicine without risk: Students’ and educators’ responses to high-fidelity patient simulation. Academic Medicine 76(5): 469-472.

Shaffer, D.W. (2001). Thinking forward by thinking back. Communication Arts 42(8): 134-136.

2000

Dawson, S.L., Cotin, S., Meglan, D., Shaffer, D.W., & Ferrell, M. (2000). Designing a computer-based simulator for interventional cardiology training. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 51: 522-527.

Shaffer, D.W., Dawson, S.L., Meglan, D., Cotin, S., Ferrell, M., Norbash, A., et al. (2000). Design principles for the use of simulation as an aid in interventional cardiology training. Minimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies 10(2): 75-82.

Cotin, S., Shaffer, D.W., Meglan, D., Ottensmeyer, M., Berry, P., & Dawson, S.L. (2000). CAML: A general framework for the development of medical simulations. In H. Pien (Ed.), Proceedings of SPIE vol. 4037: Battlefield biomedical technologies (vol. 2).

Shaffer, D.W. (2000). This is Dewey’s vision revisited. In D. T. Gordon (Ed.), The digital classroom: How technology is changing the way we teach and learn (pp. 176-178). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Letter.

1999

Shaffer, D.W. & Kaput, J.J. (1999). Mathematics and virtual culture: an evolutionary perspective on technology and mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics 37: 97-119.

Cossentino, J. & Shaffer, D.W. (1999). The math studio: Harnessing the power of the arts to teach across disciplines. Journal of Aesthetic Education 33(2): 99-109.

Shaffer, D.W., & Resnick, M. (1999). Thick authenticity: New media and authentic learning. Journal of Interactive Learning Research 10(2): 195-215.

Shaffer, D.W., Meglan, D., Ferrell, M., & Dawson, S. (1999). Virtual Rounds: Simulation-based education in procedural medicine. In H. Pien (Ed.), Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3712: Battlefield biomedical technologies.

1998

Shaffer, D.W. (1998). The pedagogy of the digital studio: Learning through collaboration, expression and construction. In A. Bruckman, M. Guzdial, J. L. Kolodner & A. Ram (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Society on the Learning Sciences (pp. 263-269). Charlottesville, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.

Shaffer, D.W. (1998). Expressive mathematics: Learning by design. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

1997

Shaffer, D.W. (1997). Learning mathematics through design: The anatomy of Escher’s World. Journal of Mathematical Behavior 16(2): 95-112.

Shaffer, D.W. (1997). Escher’s World: Learning symmetry through mathematics and art. Symmetry: Culture and Science 8(3-4): 369-393.

Shaffer, D.W. (1997). Design, collaboration, and computation: The design studio as a model for computer-supported collaboration in mathematics. Paper presented at the Computer Support for Collaborative Learning Conference. Toronto, ON.

1996

Shaffer, D.W. (1996). Escher’s World: Learning mathematics through design in a digital studio. (Unpublished masters thesis). Massachusetts Institute of technology, Cambridge, MA.

1995

Shaffer, D.W. (1995). Symmetric intuitions: Dynamic geometry/dynamic art. Symmetry: Culture and Science 6(3): 476-479.

Shaffer, D.W. (1995). Exploring trigonometry: With the Geometer’s Sketchpad. Berkeley, CA: Key Curriculum Press.

If you use any products, services, or data developed or provided by EGG/GAPS (including virtual internships and epistemic network analysis) in your research or in any publications or presentations, please read our guidelines for acknowledgment.

GAPS is housed within the Wisconsin Center for Education Research at the School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.